Ocular Surface Pharmacology

Ocular Surface Pharmacology:

Ocular Pharmacology includes the both pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the ocular drug to be administered. Biological and therapeutic effect of the drug, that is Mechanism of Action. Most drugs act by binding to regulatory macromolecules, usually neurotransmitters or hormone receptors or enzymes. If the drug is working at the receptor level, it can be agonist or antagonist. If the drug is working at the enzyme level, it can be activator or inhibitor. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the drug comes under pharmacokinetics. A drug can be delivered to ocular tissue as locally (Eye drop, Ointment, Peri ocular injection, Intraocular injection), Systemically(Orally, IV). The factors that influence local drug penetration into ocular tissue are 1. Drug concentration and solubility shows higher the concentration the better the penetration. (pilocarpine 1?4% but limited by reflex tearing) 2.Viscosity: Addition of methylcellulose and polyvinyl alcohol increases drug penetration by increasing the contact time with the cornea and altering corneal epithelium 3.Lipid solubility: because of the lipid rich environment of the epithelial cell membranes, the higher lipid solubility the more the penetration, surfactants, pH, drug tonicity, molecular weight and size. 

  • • Glaucoma and its advanced and intregrated treatments
  • • Ocular pharmacotherapy/clinical trials
  • • Ocular drug delivery and biotransformation
  • • Ocular ischemia and blood flow
  • • Ocular inflammatory and immune disorders

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