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Developing the possibilities to share and care the vision
- Eye Care 2018


Eye Care 2018

The 19th International Conference on Ocular Pharmacology and Eye Care was organized on September 03-04, 2018 at the SANA Malhoa Hotel, Lisbon, Portugal. The conference was marked with the attendance of Editorial Board Members of supported Allied Academies Journals, Scientists, young and brilliant researchers and talented student communities representing more than 5 countries, who made this conference fruitful and productive.

This conference was based on the Theme - " Developing the possibilities to share and care the vision” which included the following scientific tracks:

  • ·         Ocular physiology
  • ·         Ocular Surface Pharmacology 
  • ·         Immunology and ocular infection 
  • ·         Retinal Pharmacology 
  • ·         Retinal Disorders
  • ·         Ocular Diagnosis and Ophthalmic Imaging
  • ·         Ocular pharmacotherapy
  • ·         Ocular Diseases 
  • ·         Genetical Disorders of Eye 
  • ·         Pharmacology of Ocular Drugs
  • ·         Ophthalmic Drug 
  • ·         Pharmacology of Ocular Therapeutics 
  • ·         Advancements in Ocular Therapeutics
  • ·         Clinical meets pre-clinical: Translational Research 
  • ·         Ocular Toxicology 
  • ·         Ocular Oncology (Ocular Tumors)
  • ·         Public Health & Integrated Eye Care


Eye Care 2018 was moderated by Engin K N (Saglik University, Turkey) on the First day of the Conference.

We are grateful to our Organizing Committee Members for their generous support and suggestions for the conference.

Engin K N (Saglik University, Turkey)

Hayette Rebika (Corporate Medical Affairs Director, France )

The conference proceeded through various Scientific Sessions and plenary lectures, of which the topics were highlighted as Keynote Presentations and Special Sessions.

Scientific sessions were chaired by: Engin K N (Saglik University, Turkey)

Allied Academies has taken the grand privilege of felicitating Eye Care 2018 Organizing Committee, Editorial Board Members and Keynote Speakers who supported for the success of this event.

The esteemed guests, Keynote speakers, well-known researchers and delegates shared their innovative research and vast experience through their presentations at the podium of Eye Care 2018. We are glad to inform that all accepted abstracts for the conference have been published in the Ophthalmology Case Reports as a special issue.

We are also obliged to various delegate experts, company representatives and other eminent personalities who supported the conference by facilitating active discussion forums. We sincerely thank the Organizing Committee Members for their gracious presence, support, and assistance. With the unique and positive feedback from the conference, Allied Academies would like to announce the commencement of the "20th International Conference on Ocular Pharmacology” which is being organized during June 10-11, 2019 at Warsaw, Poland

About Conference

Allied Academies invites all the participants from all across the globe to attend 19th  International Conference on ocular ophthalmology and eye care, on September 03-04, 2018 in Lisbon, Portugal. Which brings together a unique and international mix of large and medium pharmaceutical, biotech and diagnostic companies, making the conference a perfect platform to share experience. Eye Care 2018 maximizes the opportunity to interact with and learn from your peers from across the country and across the globe it held with the discussions on retina and retinal disorders, Cornea and External Eye Disease Neuro-Ophthalmology, Glaucoma, Visual Field Loss, Ocular Microbiology and Immunology. Ophthalmology is a stream of medicine dealing with eye and visual system. Ophthalmology completely relates to both internal visual system and external parts such eye ball, eye lid, eye lashes and tear formation. Treatments include right from  external eye care to using medical, surgical and rehabilitate methods to treat various eye related problems.



To have blind free world, it is very important for the clinicians and researchers to meet and discuss about the various aspects to bring research into clinical practice. Also certain diagnosis concerns can be dealt with finding novel solution through research.


Why should you attend Eye Care 2018?

With people from around the world focused on getting some answers concerning ocular pharmacology and Eye Care, this is your single most obvious opportunity to accomplish the greatest accumulation of individuals from the mending focuses, Universities, bunch, etc. These Ocular Pharmacology and Ophthalmology in 2018 will coordinate appear, disperse information, meeting with recurring pattern and potential investigators and get name affirmation at this 2-day event. Broadly acclaimed speakers, the most recent diseases, cures and the most current researches in Ocular Pharmacology fields are indications of this conference. This Eye Care 2018 will help in frameworks organization, B2B uniting amidst specialists and academicians.

Target Audience:

Eminent personalities, Optometrist, Pediatric OphthalmologistDoctors, Directors, CEO, President, Vice-president, Research scientists,  Organizations, Post-docs, Associations heads and Professors, Eye Care clinics, Ocular pharmacological Institutions, Students and other affiliates related to the area of Ophthalmology.,


Welcome Message

We are happy and honored to welcome all distinguished guests and delegates to the 19th International Conference on ocular ophthalmology and eye care, scheduled in Portugal from 3rd to 4th September 2018. We are delighted to host this prestigious ophthalmic event,  which is now turning to become a pinnacle in ophthalmology. The Eye Care 2018 conference drew attendees of an international faculty of experts in ophthalmology around the globe to share their knowledge and experience with clinicians, eye surgeons and researchers from all over the world. Our Conference theme is “Developing the possibilities to share and care the vision”, the Eye Care 2018 conference will focus on fields such as new techniques in treatment in major eye diseases, novel approach in ophthalmology, clinical and surgical ophthalmology. We trust Eye Care 2018 will be a much all the more incorporating occasion that will cultivate logical development and further insightful joint efforts over the globe. Your presence will help to make this event to become a great success and your enthusiasm and positive spirit will make our time together both productive and fun. Lastly we look forward for your contribution and extraordinary dedication. We are honored to be a part of such a remarkable and talented community. We hope you will join with us to attend the conference Eye care 2018. We welcome you to this conference and look forward to your participation.

Market Analysis

 Market Analysis Report:-

As a result of speedy growth in world population, patients with eye diseases and patients with cataract,glaucoma is increasing every year thus stabilizing the ophthalmology market which experienced a downfall in the year 2008-2009.According to a survey, the total world population suffering blindness because of cataract and glaucoma are 48% and 60 million respectively.By the end of the year 2020,it is predicted that people suffering from glaucoma will be 80 million.According to the World Health Organization(WHO) estimated population to be suffering from visual impairment worldwide is 253 million of which 36 million are blind and 217 million people have moderate to severe vision impairment.Approximately 81% of people aged 50 years and above are suffering from blindness or moderate to severe vision impairment.80% of all vision impairment cases can be prevented or cured.The field of ophthalmology is experiencing an increased use of robotic systems.Robot-assisted surgeries provide an advantage to surgeons like to perform complex surgeries with increased precision,the amplified scale of motion, decreased tremor,flexibility and task automation.The analyst predicts during the period 2018-2022 the ophthalmology device market will grow to USD 84.16 billion.The largest region of ophthalmic devices is in Asia-Pacific with a share of 33%.North America stands as the second largest region with a market share of 29%.The smallest region was Africa with a market share of 3%.According to a study in 2011, the worldwide ophthalmic market was $17.5 billion and is expected to grow by the year 2023 to $34.7 billion,thus indicating a 5.9% of compound annual growth rate.Ophthalmic product market crosses USD 22 billion worldwide and is growing at a rate more than 10% per year.The inclusion  of ophthalmic products, eye care products the market is USD 17 billion.       


Session 1: Eye development biology

The major sensory organs of the head develop from the interactions of the neural tube with a series of epidermal thickenings called the cranial epidermal places. The most anterior of these are the two olfactory places that form the ganglia for the olfactory nerves, which are responsible for the sense of smell. The auditory places similarly invigilate to form the inner ear labyrinth, whose neurons form the acoustic ganglion, which enables us to hear. In this section, we will focus on the eye. The middle portion of the optic cup develops into the ciliary body and iris. During the invagination of the optic cup, the ectoderm begins to thicken and form the lens placed, which eventually separates from the ectoderm to form the lens vesicle at the open end of the optic cup. Further differentiation and mechanical rearrangement of cells in and around the optic cup gives rise to the fully developed eye.

·           Eye anatomy

·           Refractive power of eye

·           Physiology of vitreous humour

·           Tear physiology

·           Route of administration

Session 2: Segments of eye

Eyes are sense organs of the visual arrangement of the body. They identify light and change over it into electro-concoction driving forces in neurons. Eye development is initiated by the master control gene Pax-6,a home box gene with known homologous in humans, mice (small eye),and Drosophila (eyeless).The Pax-6 gene locus is a transcription factor for the various genes and growth factors involved in eye formation. These two grooves in the neural folds transform into optic vesicles with the closure of the neural tube. The optic vesicles then develop into the optic cup with the inner layer forming the retina and the outer portion forming the retinal pigmentepithelium. In higher living beings, the encompassing condition, manages its force through a diaphragm, centres it through a movable get together of focal points to shape a picture, changes over this picture into an arrangement of electrical flags, and transmits these signs to the cerebrum through complex neural pathways that interface the eye by means of the optic nerve to the visual cortex and different zones of the mind.The distinctive structures add to the eye's capacity to centre and shape an immaculate vision.

·          Glaucoma

·          Advance techniques and treatments

·          Ocular drug delivery 

·          Biotransformation

Session - 3: Retina

The retina is the third and inner coat of the eye which is a light-sensitive layer of tissue. The optics of the eye create an image of the visual world on the retina (through the cornea and lens),which serves much the same function as the film in a camera. Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical events that ultimately trigger nerve impulses. These are sent to various visual centres of the brain through the fibres of the optic nerve. Neural retina typically refers to three layers of neural cells (photo receptor cells, bipolar cells and ganglion cells) within the retina, while the entire retina refers to these three layers plus a layer of pigmented epithelial cells.

·            Cancers affecting retina

·            Cone-rod dystrophy

·            Diabetic retinopathy    

·            Age related macular degeneration (ARMD) 

Session - 4: Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness. It is a condition that cause group of eye diseases that cause damage to the optic nerve and vision loss. The most common type is closed angle glaucoma develops slowly over time and there is no pain. Closed angle glaucoma can present gradually or suddenly may involve severe eye pain, blurred vision, mid-dilated pupil, redness of the eye and nausea. Vision loss from glaucoma once it occurred is permanent. Variations of OAG are primary open angle glaucoma (POAG),normal tension glaucoma(NTG), pigmentary glaucoma, pseudo exfoliation glaucoma, secondary glaucoma and congenital glaucoma. Variations of closed angle glaucoma are acute angle closure glaucoma. Most of the people not knowing that they have glaucoma. It has no early symptoms or pain. According to the American academy of ophthalmology, glaucoma affects 2.2million people in the united states and the number is increase to 3.3 million by 2020 as the US population ages.

·         Neuroprotective strategies

·         Plateau iris syndrome

·         Tube shunt surgery

·         MICS in glaucoma: are they really effective?

·         Glaucoma diagnosis using spectral domain OCT

Session - 5: Ocular oncology

Just like in other parts of the body, eyes as well, can create tumours. The tumours might be benevolent or harmful, that is, they may remain limited in the eye or spread outside. Eye tumours can undermine the visual perception and even have genuine impact on wellbeing and life. Visual oncology is the claim to fame managing eye tumours. Tumours can emerge in any piece of the eye. Some eye tumours can be very genuine, while others require no treatment. Ophthalmologists at Mass. Eye and Ear are exceptionally comfortable with tumours all through the eye. Most eye tumours are effortlessly noticeable changes. They can be distinguished and perceived at a beginning time. Treatment can be begun early and spare the eye and life of the patient.

·          Uveal melanoma           

·          Orbital tumours and inflammation

·          Retinoblastoma track

·          Uveal tumours 

·          Examination       

Session - 6 : Retinal and eye disorders

The retina is a very thin layer of tissue within back mass of your eye. Retina & Eye contains a huge number of light-touchy cells and other nerve cells that get and sort out visual data. Your retina sends this data to your cerebrum through your optic nerve empowering you to see. Retinal degenerative issue for example Age-related macular degeneration and myopic macular degeneration influencing youthful and old from numerous societies, races and ethnicities. The focal territory of the retina contains a high thickness of shading delicate photoreceptor cells called cones which are in charge of shading vision and subsequently any deformity and modification in the focal zone of the retina will prompt Colour vision imperfections. Many eye diseases have no early symptoms. They may be painless and you may see no change in your vision until the disease has become quite advanced. List of some eye disorders: Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the physical disturbance of the centre of the retina called the macula.

·          Cataracts       

·          Cataracts in Babies

·          CMV Retinitis

·          Colour Blindness

·          Crossed Eyes (Strabismus)

Session 7: Orthokeratology and orthoptics

Orthokeratology and orthotics is a procedure that utilizations exceptionally planned GP contact lenses to briefly reshape the shape of the cornea to diminish astigmatism (partial blindness). Orthokeratology is nicknamed “ortho-k” and some of the time called corneal reshaping (CR), corneal refractive treatment or vision molding. Some new ortho-k lens plans are likewise accessible for farsightedness and presbyopia. Research has likewise shown that orthokeratology lens outlines moderate the movement of myopia.Orthokeratology lenses are worn daily or on substitute evenings and evacuated in the morning. The point is to revise vision without the requirement for scenes or contact lenses amid the day. Since the consequences for the state of the eye are transitory, the eyes come back to their unique shape and remedy if the lenses are left off for a couple of days. Orthoptics is a calling associated to eye care profession whose essential accentuation is the determination and non-surgical administration of strabismus (meandering eye), amblyopia (sluggish eye) and eye development issue. Orthoptist are prepared experts who represent considerable authority in orthoptic treatment. With particular preparing in a few nations orthoptists might be associated with checking of a few types of eye illness for example glaucoma, waterfall screening and diabetic retinopathy.

·          Myopia

·          Hyperopia

·          Astigmatism 

·          Amblyopia

·          Strabismus


Session-8:  Effects of eye disorder

There are numerous different causes that may happen at different areas in the optic pathway. Some eye issues are minor and don't keep going long. Be that as it may some can prompt a perpetual loss of vision.    

·           Ophthalmicgenetic disorders         

·           Refractive errors and disorders

·           Paediatrics optometry

·           Eye injury

·           Ocular allergies

·           Eye cancers

·           Ocular toxicology

·           Retinopathy

·           Keratoconus

·           Uveitis

·           Didactic eye diseases

Session -9: Effects of other dieseases on eye

Basic neurologic issue have visual indications influencing vision, including dry eye and agonizing eye development. Neurological scatters particular to the eye incorporate optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathy and essential glaucomatous optic nerve malady, while foundational neurologic ailments, for example Parkinson's and Alzheimer sicknesses have visual appearances identified with crumbling of the cerebrum. Patients after stroke additionally regularly have visual issues coming from neurologic harm. Graves eye illness otherwise called thyroid eye malady is an immune system condition in which insusceptible cells assault the thyroid organ which reacts by emitting an overabundance measure of thyroid hormone. Subsequently the thyroid organ develops and overabundance hormones increment digestion.

·         Rheumatoid arthritis

·         Cardiovascular disease

·         Obesity

·         Grave's disease

·         Addison’s disease 

Session-10: Eye drop and oral medication

Eye care Medications are in the form of an eye drop or an ointment. Eye drops are most common but ointments last longer and provide more lubrication or easy to administer in some cases. Eye drops are saline-containing drops used as an ocular route to control. The condition being treated that contains steroids, antihistamines, sympathomimetic, parasympatholytics, betareceptorblockers, parasympathomimetics, prostaglandins, no steroidal  anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antibiotics, antifungal or topical anaesthetics. Sometimes they do not have medications and only lubricating and tear-replacing resolutions. Eye drops have less risk of side effects than oral medicines and such risk can be reduced by occluding the lacrimal punctum for a short while after instilling drops.


·           Cyclopentolate          

·           Antihistamines

·           NSAIDS

·           Antibiotics

·           Antifungals        


Session- 11: Optical engineering

Optical engineering uses classical optics techniques to create novel devices and instrumentation, and the college of Optical Sciences leads the field in designing and fabricating highly specialized optics. OSC maintains state-of-the-art facilities and a superb technical staff for grinding, polishing, measuring and aligning the world’s most challenging mirrors-including those for astronomical telescopes. Students work side-by-side with experienced professionals on extensive, distinctive projects like the giant magellan telescope, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and OSIRIS-REX.

·          Giant magellan telescope

·          Large synoptic telescope

·          OSIRIS-REX

Session 12 : Traditional/herbal treatment

Ayurvedic herbal medicine physicians recognize three major physiological (body) types. The three types or Doshas are the Vata, Pitta and Kapha. The body type is determined by heredity and is often referred to as Prakriti. Physicians will often interview, observe, and use a technique called pulse diagnoses to determine a patient’s body type, which is often a combination such as Vata/Pitta. After determining body type the physician will determine any imbalances and what approaches may be needed to bring balance. This is often done through herbal supplementation or dietary changes. Other treatments may include hatha yoga, acupuncture, massage therapies, aromatherapy and music therapy. The use of natural remedies and herbal treatments produces little or no side effects, commonly seen with pharmaceutical interventions. The prevention approach also reduces the need for many different treatments to offset the effects of drugs used to combat a particular illness or disorder. The natural approach to health and wellness is becoming much more popular in lieu of drug therapies and surgery.

·           Hatha yoga        

·           Homeopathy

·           Aromatherapy

·           Acupuncture

·           Massage therapy


Session-13: Ophthalmologists career and training

Ophthalmologists are doctors who spend significant time in treating and diagnosing sicknesses of the eye. Such issues can incorporate maladies like cataracts or glaucoma wounds; and issues with vision, similar to farsightedness. American Academy of Ophthalmology have renowned and expertise ophthalmologists have more particular preparing in the eye than family specialists and in opposition to optometrists, have finished therapeutic school and know about general medication and surgery. On account of this preparation, ophthalmologists regularly get referrals of patients with genuine eye issue from optometrists and family doctors. Coursework in a therapeutic school program incorporates general wellbeing concentrates for example life structures and physiology. To motivate the forthcoming ophthalmologists cataract 2018 has an exceptional session on ophthalmologists' vocation and preparing.

  • Medical terminology and ophthalmic pharmacology.
  • Optics, ocular anatomy and physiology.
  • Eye  diseases
  • Ocular motility.
  • Ophthalmic photography.
  • Ophthalmic surgical assisting.


Session-14: OpticNerve Hemangioblastoma

Hemangioblastomas are exclusive to the central nervous system (CNS) accounting for two per cent of all primary intracranial tumours and approximately ten per cent of adult posterior fossa tumours. They are considered benign slow-growing tumours that often contain both solid and cystic components. They occur either sporadically or in association with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. VHL-disease is a heritable systemic syndrome that manifests in the CNS with multiple intracranial and retinal hemangioblastomas. Although surgical outcomes are similar for both sporadically occurring and VHL disease-associated hemangioblastomas, patients with VHL disease have a higher morbidity and mortality secondary to multifocal disease. Therefore, assessment for the presence of VHL disease is important when a CNS hemangioblastoma is identified.

•           multifocal disease

•           tumours

•           VHL disease

•           Visual prognosis

•           Traumatic choroidal rupture

•           Retinal vessel obstruction

•           POAG

•           LTG

•           Kearatoconus

•           Retinoblastoma

Session-15: Choroideremia

Choroideremia is a condition characterized by progressive vision loss that mainly affects males. The first symptom of this condition is usually an impairment of night vision (night blindness), which can occur in early childhood. A progressive narrowing of the field of vision (tunnel vision) follows as well as a decrease in the ability to see details (visual acuity).These vision problems are due to an on-going loss of cells (atrophy) in the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye (retina) and a nearby network of blood vessels (the choroid).The vision impairment in choroideremia worsens over time, but the progression varies among affected individuals. However all individuals with this condition will develop blindness, most commonly in late adulthood.

·        Cyclopentolate          

·        Antihistamines

·        NSAIDS

·        Antibiotics

·        Antifungals 

·        Atrophy

·        tunnel vision

·        visual acuity

·        vision impair

·        LCA

·        retinitis pigments

·     night blindness

·        enucleating 

·        macular degeneration

·        Anton's Syndrome

Session-16: Neuro Ophthalmology

Neuro-ophthalmology is an academically-oriented subspecialty that merges the fields of neurology and ophthalmology often dealing with complex systemic diseases that have manifestations in the visual system. Neuro-ophthalmologists initially complete a residency in either neurology or ophthalmology then do a fellowship in the complementary field. Since diagnostic studies can be normal in patients with significant neuro-ophthalmic disease a detailed medical history and physical exam is essential and neuro-ophthalmologists often spend a significant amount of time with their patients. Common pathology referred to a neuro-ophthalmologist includes afferent visual system disorders and efferent visual system disorders.

·         optic neuritis

·         optic neuropathy

·         papilledema

·         brain tumours

·         brain strokes

·         anisocoria

·         diplopia ophthalmoplegia

·         nystagmus

·         blepharospasm

·         seizures of eye


Session-17: Retinal Detachment

Retinal detachment is a disorder of the eye in which the retina separates from the layer underneath. Symptoms include an increase in the number of floaters, flashes of light and worsening of the outer part of the visual field. This may be described as a curtain over part of the field of vision. In about 7% of cases both eyes are affected. Without treatment permanent loss of vision may occur.
The mechanism most commonly involves a break in the retina that then allows the fluid in the eye to get behind the retina. A break in the retina can occur from a posterior vitreous detachment, injury to the eye or inflammation of the eye. Other risk factors include being short sighted and previous cataract surgery. Retinal detachments also rarely occur due to a choroidal tumour. Diagnosis is by either looking at the back of the eye with an ophthalmoscope or by ultrasound.
In those with a retinal tear, efforts to prevent it becoming a detachment include cryotherapy using a cold probe or photocoagulation using a laser. Treatment of retinal detachment should be carried out in a timely manner. This may include scleral buckling where silicone is sutured to the outside of the eye, pneumatic retinopexy where gas is injected into the eye or vitrectomy where the vitreous is partly removed and replaced with either gas or oil.
Retinal detachments affect between 0.6 and 1.8 people per 10,000 per year.

·         scleral buckling

·         pneumatic retinopexy

·         cryotherapy

·         ophthalmscope

·         laser photocoagulation

·         amsler grid test

·         RRDs

·         Rhegmatogenous 

·         RPE


Session-18: Corneal transplantation

Corneal transplantation also known as corneal grafting is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced by donated corneal tissue (the graft).When the entire cornea is replaced it is known as penetrating keratoplasty and when only part of the cornea is replaced it is known as lamellar keratoplasty. Keratoplasty simply means surgery to the cornea. The graft is taken from a recently dead individual with no known diseases or other factors that may affect the chance of survival of the donated tissue or the health of the recipient. The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil and anterior chamber. The surgical procedure is performed by ophthalmologists, physiorneacians who specialize in eyes and is often done on an outpatient basis. Donors can be of any age as is shown in the case of Janis Babson, who donated her eyes at age 10. The corneal transplantation is performed when medicines, keratoconus conservative surgery and cross-linking cannot heal the cornea anymore.

·         Phototherapeutic keratectomy

·         Corneal grafting

·         DALK

·         OOKP

·         Boston Keratoprosthesis

·         DSAEK

·         Intrastromal corneal ring

·         Corneal collagen cross-linking

·         DSEK

·         DMEK

Session-19: Herpes simplex eye infections

Herpes simplex can infect the eye at one or more levels: 

Herpes simplex can infect the eye at one or more levels: 
Lids and surrounding skin - seen as blepharitis and dermatitis respectively.
Conjunctiva - characterised by conjunctivitis.

Cornea - keratitis. This is inflammation of one or more of the three corneal layers:
Epithelial keratitis is the most common ocular manifestation, occurring in up to 80% of cases. It is characterised by dendritic ulcers.
The stroma and endothelium can also be affected. Stromal infection may be non-necrotising(disciform keratitis)or, more rarely, necrotising(and may be associated with severe complications, including perforation).Keratitis can lead to scarring and visual disturbance or,in severe cases, visual loss. Indeed, it is the most common infective cause of blindness due to corneal disease in high-income countries. 
Uveal tract -uveitis: patients have usually had severe corneal disease.
Retina -retinitis: this is rare and may be seen in neonates with severe systemic

·         Disciform keratitis

·         Uveitis

·         Retinitis

·         Stromal infection

·         Conjunctiva

·         Blepharitis

·         Dermatitis

·         Dendritic ulcers

·         Epithelial keratitis


Session-20: Acanthamoeba keratitis

Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare disease in which amoebae invade the cornea of the eye.It may result in permanent visual impairment or blindness. Acanthamoeba Keratitis(AK)is an infection of the cornea the clear ‘window’ at the front of the eye that can be very painful. The infection is caused by a microscopic organism called Acanthamoeba, which is common in nature and is usually found in bodies of water (lakes, oceans and rivers) as well as domestic tap water, swimming pools, hot tubs, soil and air. 

·         AK

·         Confocal microscopy

·         Corneal scraping

·         Targeted PCR amplification

·         Ocular erythema

·         Recurrent corneal erosion

·         Amebic ocular keratitis

·         Epiphora

·         Photophobia


Session-21: Astigmatism

Astigmatism is a type of refractive error in which the eye does not focus light evenly on the retina. This results in distorted or blurred vision at all distances. Other symptoms can include eyestrain, headaches and trouble driving at night. If it occurs early in life it can result in amblyopia. The cause of astigmatism is unclear. It is believed to be partly related to genetic factors. The underlying mechanism involves an irregular curvature of the cornea or abnormalities in the lens of the eye. Diagnosis is by an eye exam.
Three options exist for the treatment i.e. glasses, contact lenses and surgery. Glasses are the simplest. Contact lenses can provide a wider field of vision. Refractive surgery permanently changes the shape of the eye.

·         Eye exam

·         Refractive surgery

·         Contact lenses

·         Blurry vision

·         Squinting

·         Eye strain

·         Fatigue

·         Migraine

·         Amblyopia

·         Corneal topography


Session-22: Vitrectomy

Vitrectomy is surgery to remove some or all of the vitreous humour from the eye. Anterior vitrectomy entails removing small portions of the vitreous humour from the front structures of the eye-often because these are tangled in an intraocular lens or other structures. Pars plana vitrectomy is a general term for a group of operations accomplished in the deeper part of the eye all of which involve removing some or all of the vitreous humour-the eye's clear internal jelly. Even before the modern era, some surgeons did perform crude vasectomies.  For instance, Dutch surgeon Anton Nuck (1650-1692) claimed to have removed vitreous by suction in a young man with an inflamed eye.

·         Pars plana vitrectomy

·         Anterior vitrectomy

·         Macular pucker

·          Terson syndrome

·         Lensectomy

·         Scleral buckling

·         Silicone oil injection

·         Membranectomy

·         Fluid/air exchange

·         Air/gas exchange 


Session-23: Cystoid macular

Cystoid macular edema or CME is a painless disorder which affects the central retina or macula. When this condition is present, multiple cyst-like (cystoid) areas of fluid appear in the macula and cause retinal swelling or edema. Symptoms
Blurred or decreased central vision(the disorder does not affect peripheral or side-vision)The symptom described above may not necessarily mean that you have cystoid macular edema. However, if you experience this symptom, contact your eye doctor for a complete exam. Although the exact cause of CME is not known, it may accompany a variety of diseases such as retinal vein occlusion, uveitis or diabetes. It most commonly occurs after cataract surgery. About 1-3 % of those who have cataract extractions will experience decreased vision due to CME, usually within a few weeks after surgery. If the disorder appears in one eye, there is an increased risk (possibly as high as 50%) that it will also affect the second eye. Fortunately however most patients recover their vision with observation or treatment.

·         Retinal swelling

·         Decreased central vision

·         Retinal vein occlusion

·         Cataract surgery

·         Vitreomacular traction

·         Irvine-Gass

·         Glaucoma procedures

·         Optical Coherence Tomography 

·         Scanning laser ophthalmoscope

·         Retinal Thickness Analyzer 

Session-24: Diabetic Macular Edema

Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) is an accumulation of fluid in the macula-part of the retina that controls our most detailed vision abilities-due to leaking blood vessels. In order to develop DME, you must first have diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is a disease that damages the blood vessels in the retina, resulting in vision impairment.Left untreated, these blood vessels begin to build up pressure in the eye and leak fluid, causing DME.DME usually takes on two forms:
Focal DME, which occurs because of abnormalities in the blood vessels in the eye.
Diffuse DME, which occurs because of widening/swelling retinal capillaries (very thin blood vessels).

·         Focal DME

·         Diffuse DME

·         AMD

·         Behcet’s syndrome

·         Cytomegalovirus infection

·         Sarcoidosis

·         Retinal necrosis

·         Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome

·         Eales’ disease

·         Dilated eye exam


Session-25: Ptosis

Pathologic droopy eyelid, also called ptosis, may occur due to trauma, age or various medical disorders. This condition is called unilateral ptosis when it affects one eye. It’s called bilateral ptosis when it affects both eyes. It may come and go, or it might be permanent. It can be present at birth, where it’s known as congenital ptosis or you can develop it later in life, which is known as acquired ptosis.
Depending on the severity of the condition, droopy upper eyelids can block or greatly reduce vision depending on how much it obstructs the pupil. In most cases the condition will resolve, either naturally or through medical intervention. There are many different possible causes of droopy eyelids, ranging from natural causes to more serious conditions. Your doctor will be able to help you figure out what’s causing the issue.
Anyone can get droopy eyelids and there aren’t substantial differences in prevalence between men and women or between ethnicities. However it’s most common in older adults because of the natural aging process. The levator muscle is responsible for lifting the eyelid. As you age, that muscle can stretch and as a result, cause the eyelid to fall.

·         Bilateral ptosis

·         Congenital ptosis

·         Acquired ptosis

·         Blepharoptosis

·         Myasthenia Gravis

·         Abnormal lid crease

·         Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS)

·         Aarskog Syndrome

·         Turner Syndrome 

·         Aase Syndrome


 Session-26: Retrochiasmetic visual pathways

Visual failure of any kind is a common clinical presentation and indication for neuroimaging. Monocular deficits should concentrate the search to the anterior (prechiasmatic) visual pathway. Bitemporal hemianopia suggests a chiasmatic cause, whereas retrochiasmatic lesions characteristically cause homonymous hemianopic defects. Quadrantanopias usually arise from lesions in the optic radiations. Disorders of visual perception can be broadly divided into "where" and "what" problems caused by lesions in the parietal and temporal lobes, respectively, and their associated white matter tracts. Visualization of the retrochiasmatic visual and visual association pathways is aided by diffusion tensor imaging.

·         Pupillary Dark Reflex

·         Pupillary Light Reflex

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