Global assembling of Academicians, Researchers, Scholars & Industry to disseminate and exchange information at 100+ Allied Academics Conferences

Developing the possibilities to share and care the vision
- Ocular Pharmacology and Eye Care

About Conference

The  International Conference on ocular ophthalmology and eye care which is going to be held during September 03-04, 2018 at Lisbon,Portugal.which brings together a unique and international mix of large and medium pharmaceutical,biotech and diagnostic companies,making the conference a perfect platform to share experience,foster collaborations across industry and academia,and evaluate emerging technologies across the globe.Eye care 2018 maximizes the opportunity to interact with and learn from your peers from across the country and across the globe it held with the discussions on retina and retinal disorders,Cornea and External Eye Disease Neuro-Ophthalmology,Glaucoma:Visual Field Loss,Ocular Microbiology and Immunology,Novel Approaches to Ophthalmology Therapeutics and many more.Ophthalmology is a stream of medicine dealing with eye and visual system.Ophthalmology completely relates to both internal visual system and external  parts such eye ball,eye lid,eye lashes and tear formation.Treatments include right from  external eye care to using medical ,surgical and rehabilitate methods to treat various eye related problems.Many specialists such as Ophthalmologists,Optometrists,Vision Specialists working on various aspects to eradicate blindness.To have blind free world, it is very important for the clinicians and researchers to meet and discuss about the various aspects to bring research into clinical practice.Also certain diagnosis concerns can be dealt with finding novel solution through research.Ophthalmology conferences are being conducted to bring the researchers and clinicians together and have a beneficial discussion and make the world blind free.Retinal disorders,optic atrophy,and lesions of the higher visual pathways are the main anatomical causes of visual loss in children.WHO reports that,285 million people are estimated to be visually impaired worldwide:39 million are blind and 246 have low vision.About 90% of the world’s visually impaired live in low-income settings 82% of people living with blindness are aged 50 and above.Globally,uncorrected refractive errors are the main cause of moderate and severe visual impairment; cataracts remain the leading cause of blindness in middle- and low-income countries.


Welcome Message

We are happy and honored to welcome all distinguished guests and delegates to the 19th International Conference on ocular ophthalmology and eye care,scheduled in Portugal from 3rd to 4th September 2018.We are delighted to host this prestigious ophthalmic event,which is now turning to become a pinnacle in ophthalmology.The Eye 2018 conference drew attendees of an international faculty of experts in ophthalmology around the globe to share their knowledge,and experience with clinicians,eye surgeons,and researchers from all over the world.Themed“Developing the possibilities to share and care the vision",the Eye care 2018 conference will focus on fields such as new techniques in treatment in major eye diseases, novel approach in ophthalmology,clinical and surgical  ophthalmology.We trust eye care 2018 will be a much all the more incorporating occasion that will cultivate logical development and further insightful joint efforts over the globe.Your presence will help to make this event to become  a great success and your enthusiasm and positive spirit will make our time together both productive and fun.lastly,we very much look forward for your contribution and extraordinary dedication.I am honored to be a part of such a remarkable and talented community.We hope you will join with us to attend the conference Eye care 2018.We welcome you to this conference and look forward to your participation.

Market Analysis

 Market Analysis Report:-


As a result of speedy growth in world population, patients with eye diseases and patients with cataract,glaucoma is increasing every year thus stabilizing the ophthalmology market which experienced a downfall in the year 2008-2009.According to a survey, the total world population suffering blindness because of cataract and glaucoma are 48% and 60 million respectively.By the end of the year 2020,it is predicted that people suffering from glaucoma will be 80 million.According to the World Health Organization(WHO) estimated population to be suffering from visual impairment worldwide is 253 million of which 36 million are blind and 217 million people have moderate to severe vision impairment.Approximately 81% of people aged 50 years and above are suffering from blindness or moderate to severe vision impairment.80% of all vision impairment cases can be prevented or cured.The field of ophthalmology is experiencing an increased use of robotic systems.Robot-assisted surgeries provide an advantage to surgeons like to perform complex surgeries with increased precision,the amplified scale of motion, decreased tremor,flexibility and task automation.The analyst predicts during the period 2018-2022 the ophthalmology device market will grow to USD 84.16 billion.The largest region of ophthalmic devices is in Asia-Pacific with a share of 33%.North America stands as the second largest region with a market share of 29%.The smallest region was Africa with a market share of 3%.According to a study in 2011, the worldwide ophthalmic market was $17.5 billion and is expected to grow by the year 2023 to $34.7 billion,thus indicating a 5.9% of compound annual growth rate.Ophthalmic product market crosses USD 22 billion worldwide and is growing at a rate more than 10% per year.The inclusion  of ophthalmic products, eye care products the market is USD 17 billion.       


Session 1: Eye development biology

The major sensory organs of the head develop from the interactions of the neural tube with a series of epidermal thickenings called the cranial epidermal places.The most anterior of these are the two olfactory places that form the ganglia for the olfactory nerves,which are responsible for the sense of smell.The auditory places similarly invigilate to form the inner ear labyrinth,whose neurons form the acoustic ganglion,which enables us to hear.In this section,we will focus on the eye.The middle portion of the optic cup develops into the ciliary body and iris.During the invagination of the optic cup,the ectoderm begins to thicken and form the lens placed,which eventually separates from the ectoderm to form the lens vesicle at the open end of the optic cup.Further differentiation and mechanical rearrangement of cells in and around the optic cup gives rise to the fully developed eye.

  •   Eye anatomy
  •   Refractive power of eye
  •   Physiology of vitreous humor
  •   Tear physiology
  •   Route of administration
Session 2: Segments of eye

Eyes are sense organs of the visual arrangement of the body.They identify light and change over it into electro-concoction driving forces in neurons.Eye development is initiated by the master control gene Pax-6,a home box gene with known homologous in humans,mice (small eye),and Drosophila (eyeless).The Pax-6 gene locus is a transcription factor for the various genes and growth factors involved in eye formation.These two grooves in the neural folds transform into optic vesicles with the closure of the neural tube.The optic vesicles then develop into the optic cup with the inner layer forming the retina and the outer portion forming the retinal pigment epithelium.In higher living beings,the encompassing condition, manages its force through a diaphragm, centers it through a movable get together of focal points to shape a picture,changes over this picture into an arrangement of electrical flags,and transmits these signs to the cerebrum through complex neural pathways that interface the eye by means of the optics nerve to the visual cortex and different zones of the mind.The distinctive structures add to the eye's capacity to center and shape an immaculate vision.

  •          Glaucoma 
  •          Advance techniques and treatments
  •          Ocular drug delivery 
  •          Biotranformation
Session - 3: Retina

The retina is the third and inner coat of the eye which is a light-sensitive layer of tissue.The optics of the eye create an image of the visual world on the retina (through the cornea and lens),which serves much the same function as the film in a camera.Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical events that ultimately trigger nerve impluses.These are sent to various visual centres of the brain through the fibres of the optic nerve.Neural retina typically refers to three layers of neural cells (photo receptor cells,bipolar cells,and ganglion cells) within the retina,while the entire retina refers to these three layers plus a layer of pigmented epithelial cells.

  •     Cancers affecting retina
  •     Cone-rod dystrophy
  •     Diabetic retinopathy    
  •     Age related macular degeneration (ARMD) 
Session - 4:Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness.It is a condition that cause group of eye diseases that cause damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.The most common type is closed angle glaucoma develops slowly over time and there is no pain.Closed angle glaucoma can present gradually or suddenly may involve severe eye pain,blurred vision,mid-dilated pupil,redness of the eye and nausea.Vision loss from glaucoma once it occurred is permanent.Variations of OAG are primary open angle glaucoma (POAG),normal tension glaucoma(NTG),pigmentary glaucoma,psuedoexofoliation glaucoma,secondary glaucoma and congenital glaucoma.Variations of closed angle glaucoma are acute angle closure glaucoma.Most of the people not knowing that they have glaucoma.It has no early symptoms or pain.According to the American academy of ophthalmology,glaucoma affects 2.2million people in the united states,and the number is increase to 3.3 million by 2020 as the US population ages.

  • Neuroprotective strategies
  • Plateau iris syndrome
  • Tube shunt sugery
  • MICS in glaucoma: are they really effective?
  • Glaucoma diagnosis using spectral domain OCT

Session - 5: Ocular oncology

Just like in other parts of the body,eyes as well, can create tumors.The tumors might be benevolent or harmful,that is,they may remain limited in the eye,or spread outside.Eye tumors can undermine the visual perception,and even have genuine impact on well being and life.visual oncology is the claim to fame managing eye tumors.Tumors can emerge in any piece of the eye.Some eye tumors can be very genuine,while others require no treatment.Ophthalmologists at Mass.Eye and Ear are exceptionally comfortable with tumors all through the eye.Most eye tumors are effortlessly noticeable changes.They can be distinguished and perceived at a beginning time.Treatment can be begun early,and spare the eye and life of the patient.

  •  Uveal melanoma           
  •  Orbital tumors and inflammation
  •  Retinoblastoma track
  •  Uveal tumors 
  •  Examination       
Session - 6 : Retinal and eye disorders

The retina is a very thin layer of tissue within back mass of your eye.Retina & Eye contains a huge number of light-touchy cells and other nerve cells that get and sort out visual data.Your retina sends this data to your cerebrum through your optic nerve,empowering you to see.Retinal degenerative issue,for example,Age-related macular degeneration and myopic macular degeneration influencing youthful and old from numerous societies,races and ethnicities.The focal territory of the retina contains a high thickness of shading delicate photoreceptor cells called cones which are in charge of shading vision and subsequently any deformity and modification in the focal zone of the retina will prompt Color vision imperfections.Many eye diseases have no early symptoms.They may be painless,and you may see no change in your vision until the disease has become quite advanced.List of some eye disorders:Age-Related Macular Degeneration.Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the physical disturbance of the center of the retina called the macula.

  •  Cataracts       
  •  Cataracts in Babies
  •  CMV Retinitis
  •  Color Blindness
  •  Crossed Eyes (Strabismus)

Session 7: Orthokeratology and orthoptics

Orthokeratology and orthoptics is a procedure that utilizations exceptionally planned GP contact lenses to briefly reshape the shape of the cornea to diminish astigmatism (partial blindness).Orthokeratology is nicknamed"ortho-k"and some of the time called corneal reshaping (CR),corneal refractive treatment or vision molding.Some new ortho-k lens plans are likewise accessible for farsightedness and presbyopia.Research has likewise shown that orthokeratology lens outlines moderate the movement of myopia.Orthokeratology lenses are worn daily,or on substitute evenings,and evacuated in the morning.The point is to revise vision without the requirement for scenes or contact lenses amid the day.Since the consequences for the state of the eye are transitory,the eyes come back to their unique shape and remedy if the lenses are left off for a couple of days.Orthoptics is a calling associated to eye care profession whose essential accentuation is the determination and non-surgical administration of strabismus (meandering eye),amblyopia (sluggish eye) and eye development issue.orthoptist are prepared experts who represent considerable authority in orthoptic treatment.With particular preparing,in a few nations orthoptists might be associated with checking of a few types of eye illness,for example,glaucoma,waterfall screening and diabetic retinopathy.

  • Myopia
  • Hyperopia
  • Astigmatism   
  • Amblyopia 
  • Strabismus
  Session-8Effects of eye disorder

There are numerous different causes that may happen at different areas in the optic pathway.Some eye issues are minor and don't keep going long. Be that as it may,some can prompt a perpetual loss of vision.    
  •   Ophthalmic genetic disorders         
  •   Refractive errors and disorders
  •   Pediatric optometry
  •   Eye injury
  •   Ocular allergies
  •   Eye cancers
  •   Ocular toxicology
  •   Retinopathy
  •   Keratococus
  •   Uveitis
  •   Didactic eye diseases
Session -9: Effects of other dieseases on eye

Basic neurologic issue have visual indications influencing vision,including dry eye and agonizing eye development.Neurological scatters particular to the eye incorporate optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathy and essential glaucomatous optic nerve malady,while foundational neurologic ailments,for example,Parkinson's and Alzheimer sicknesses have visual appearances identified with crumbling of the cerebrum.Patients after stroke additionally regularly have visual issues coming from neurologic harm.Graves' eye illness,otherwise called thyroid eye malady,is an immune system condition in which insusceptible cells assault the thyroid organ which reacts by emitting an overabundance measure of thyroid hormone. Subsequently,the thyroid organ develops and overabundance hormones increment digestion.

  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Cardiovascular diesease
  • Obesity
  • Grave's diesease
  • Addision's diesease 

Session-10:- Eye drop and oral medication

Eye care Medications are in the form of an eye drop or an ointment.Eye drops are most common but ointments last longer and provide more lubrication or easy to administer in some cases. Eye drops are saline-containing drops used as an ocular route to control.The condition being teated, that contains steroids, antihistamines, sympathomimetics, parasympatholytics, betareceptorblockers,parasympathomimetics,prostaglandins, nonsteroidal  anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antibiotics, antifungal, or topical anesthetics. Sometimes they do not have medications and only lubricating and tear-replacing resolutions.Eye drops have less risk of side effects than oral medicines, and such risk can be reduced by occluding the lacrimal punctum,for a short while after instilling drops.

  •   Cyclopentolate              
  •   Antihistamines
  •   NSAIDS
  •   Antibiotics
  •   Antifungals        

Session- 11: Optical engineering

Optical engineering uses classical optics techniques to create novel devices and instrumentation, and the College of Optical Sciences leads the field in designing and fabricating highly specialized optics.OSC maintains state-of-the-art facilities and a superb technical staff for grinding,polishing, measuring and aligning the world’s most challenging mirrors-including those for astronomical telescopes.Students work side-by-side with experienced professionals on extensive,distinctive projects like the giant magellan telescope,the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and OSIRIS-REX,an unmanned space probe that will launch in 2016,land on an asteroid and return to Earth with a material sample.

  • Giant magellan telescope
  • Large synoptic telescope
  • astronomical telescopes

Session 12 :-Traditional/herbal treatment

Ayurvedic herbal medicine physicians recognize three major physiological (body) types.The three types, or Doshas, are the Vata,Pitta,and Kapha.The body type is determined by heredity and is often referred to as Prakriti.Physicians will often interview,observe, and use a technique called pulse diagnoses to determine a patient’s body type,which is often a combination;such as Vata/Pitta.After determining body type,the physician will determine any imbalances and what approaches may be needed to bring balance.This is often done through herbal supplementation or dietary changes.Other treatments may include hatha yoga, acupuncture, massage therapies, aromatherapy,and music therapy.The use of natural remedies and herbal treatments produces little or no side effects,commonly seen with pharmaceutical interventions.The prevention approach also reduces the need for many different treatments to offset the effects of drugs used to combat a particular illness or disorder.The natural approach to health and wellness is becoming much more popular,in lieu of drug therapies and surgery.

  •   hatha yoga        
  •   Homeopathy
  •   Aromatherapy
  •   Acupuncture
  •   Massage therapy
 Session-13:- Ophthalmologists career and training

Ophthalmologists are doctors who spend significant time in treating and diagnosing sicknesses of the eye.Such issues can incorporate maladies like cataracts or glaucoma wounds; and issues with vision, similar to farsightedness.American Academy of Ophthalmology have renowned and expertise ophthalmologists have more particular preparing in the eye than family specialists and,in opposition to optometrists,have finished therapeutic school and know about general medication and surgery.On account of this preparation,ophthalmologists regularly get referrals of patients with genuine eye issue from optometrists and family doctors.Coursework in a therapeutic school program incorporates general well being concentrates,for example,life structures and physiology.To motivate the forthcoming ophthalmologists cataract 2018 has an exceptional session on ophthalmologists' vocation and preparing.

Session-14:-Optic Nerve Hemangioblastoma

Hemangioblastomas are exclusive to the central nervous system (CNS) accounting for two percent of all primary intracranial tumors and approximately ten percent of adult posterior fossa tumors.They are considered benign,slow-growing tumors that often contain both solid and cystic components.They occur either sporadically or in association with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease.VHL-disease is a heritable systemic syndrome that manifests in the CNS with multiple intracranial and retinal hemangioblastomas.Although surgical outcomes are similar for both sporadically occurring and VHL disease-associated hemangioblastomas,patients with VHL disease have a higher morbidity and mortality secondary to multifocal disease.Therefore, assessment for the presence of VHL disease is important when a CNS hemangioblastoma is identified.

Tumors that involve the optic nerve are considered primary,arising from the optic nerve or its coverings,or secondary,deriving from structures outside of the optic nerve.Although rare,optic nerve hemangioblastomas have been reported in the literature.We discuss the importance of the consideration of hemangioblastoma in the differential diagnosis for tumors of the optic nerve to allow for appropriate operative planning,management,and prognosis.

Hemangioblastomas are World Health Organization (WHO) grade I tumors of uncertain histologic origin.These central nervous system tumors are most often found in the posterior fossa,brainstem,and spinal cord.There are fewer than 20 reported cases of optic nerve hemangioblastomas in the literature.We present a patient with visual decline found to have a mass arising from within the posterior orbital canal that grossly involved the optic nerve sheath.Neuropathologic evaluation showed hemangioblastoma.Although not a common tumor in this location,consideration of hemangioblastoma in the differential diagnosis is important as they can have a more aggressive course than other tumors of this region and have a detrimental effect on visual prognosis.

    • multifocal disease
    • tumors
    • VHL disease
    • Visual prognosis
    • Traumatic choroidal rupture
    • Retinal vessel obstruction
    • POAG
    • LTG
    • Kearatoconus 
    • Retinoblastoma


    Choroideremia is a condition characterized by progressive vision loss that mainly affects males.The first symptom of this condition is usually an impairment of night vision (night blindness), which can occur in early childhooD.A progressive narrowing of the field of vision (tunnel vision) follows,as well as a decrease in the ability to see details (visual acuity).These vision problems are due to an ongoing loss of cells (atrophy) in the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye (retina) and a nearby network of blood vessels (the choroid).The vision impairment in choroideremia worsens over time,but the progression varies among affected individuals.However,all individuals with this condition will develop blindness,most commonly in late adulthood.

    • Atrophy
    • tunnel vision
    • visual acuity
    • vision impairment
    • night blindness
    • retinitis pigmentosa
    • LCA
    • enucleation 
    • macular degeneration
    • Anton's Syndrome

    Session-16:-Neuro Ophthalmology

    Neuro-ophthalmology is an academically-oriented subspecialty that merges the fields of neurology andophthalmology,often dealing with complex systemic diseases that have manifestations in the visual system.Neuro-ophthalmologists initially complete a residency in either neurology or ophthalmology,then do a fellowship in the complementary field.Since diagnostic studies can be normal in patients with significant neuro-ophthalmic disease,a detailed medical history and physical exam is essential,and neuro-ophthalmologists often spend a significant amount of time with their patients.Common pathology referred to a neuro-ophthalmologist includes afferent visual system disorders(e.g.optic neuritis,optic neuropathy,papilledema,brain tumors or strokes) and efferent visual system disorders.The largest international society of neuro-ophthalmologists is the North American Neuro-Ophthalmological Society(NANOS),which organizes an annual meeting and publishes the Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology. Neuro-ophthalmologists are often faculty at large university-based medical centers.Patients often have co-existing disease in other fields(rheumatology,endocrinology,oncology,cardiology, etc.),thus the neuro-ophthalmologist is often a liaison between the ophthalmologydepartment and other departments in the medical center.

    • optic neuritis 
    • optic neuropathy
    • papilledema
    • brain tumors
    • brain strokes
    • anisocoria
    • diplopia ophthalmoplegia
    • nystagmus
    • blepharospasm
    • seizures of eye

    Session-17:-Retinal Detachment

    Retinal detachment is a disorder of the eye in which the retinaseparates from the layer underneath.Symptoms include an increase in the number of floaters,flashes of light,and worsening of the outer part of the visual field.This may be described as a curtain over part of the field of vision.In about 7%of cases both eyes are affected.Without treatment permanent loss of vision may occur.

    The mechanism most commonly involves a break in the retina that then allows the fluid in the eye to get behind the retina.A break in the retina can occur from a posterior vitreous detachment, injury to the eye,or inflammation of the eye.Other risk factors include being short sighted and previous cataract surgery.Retinal detachments also rarely occur due to a choroidal tumor.Diagnosis is by either looking at the back of the eye with an ophthalmoscope or by ultrasound.

    In those with a retinal tear,efforts to prevent it becoming a detachment include cryotherapyusing a cold probe or photocoagulation using a laser.Treatment of retinal detachment should be carried out in a timely manner.This may include scleral buckling where silicone is sutured to the outside of the eye,pneumatic retinopexy where gas is injected into the eye,or vitrectomy where the vitreous is partly removed and replaced with either gas or oil.

    Retinal detachments affect between 0.6 and 1.8 people per 10,000 per year.

    • scleral buckling
    • pneumatic retinopexy
    • cryotherapy
    • ophthalmscope
    • laser photocoagulation
    • amsler grid test
    • RRDs
    • Rhegmatogenous 
    • RPE

    Session-18:-Corneal transplantation

    Corneal transplantation,also known as corneal grafting,is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced by donated corneal tissue (thegraft).When the entire cornea is replaced it is known as penetrating keratoplasty and when only part of the cornea is replaced it is known as lamellar keratoplasty.Keratoplasty simply means surgery to the cornea.The graft is taken from a recently dead individual with no known diseases or other factors that may affect the chance of survival of the donated tissue or the health of the recipient.The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris,pupil and anterior chamber.The surgical procedure is performed by ophthalmologists,physiorneacians who specialize in eyes,and is often done on an outpatient basis.Donors can be of any age,as is shown in the case of Janis Babson,who donated her eyes at age 10.The corneal transplantation is performed when medicines,keratoconus conservative surgery and cross-linking cannot heal the cornea anymore.

    • Phototherapeutic keratectomy
    • Corneal grafting
    • DALK
    • OOKP
    • Boston Keratoprosthesis
    • DSAEK
    • Intrastromal corneal ring
    • Corneal collagen cross-linking
    • DSEK
    • DMEK

    Session-19:-Herpes simplex eye infections

    Herpes simplex can infect the eye at one or more levels: 

    Lids and surrounding skin - seen as blepharitis and dermatitis respectively.

    Conjunctiva - characterised by conjunctivitis.

    Cornea - keratitis. This is inflammation of one or more of the three corneal layers:

    Epithelial keratitis is the most common ocular manifestation, occurring in up to 80% of cases. It is characterised by dendritic ulcers.

    The stroma and endothelium can also be affected. Stromal infection may be non-necrotising(disciform keratitis)or, more rarely, necrotising(and may be associated with severe complications, including perforation).Keratitis can lead to scarring and visual disturbance or,in severe cases, visual loss. Indeed, it is the most common infective cause of blindness due to corneal disease in high-income countries. 

    Uveal tract -uveitis: patients have usually had severe corneal disease.

    Retina -retinitis: this is rare and may be seen in neonates with severe systemic disease.

    • Disciform keratitis
    • Uveitis
    • Retinits
    • Stromal infection
    • Conjuctiva
    • Blepharitis
    • Dermatitis
    • Dendritic ulcers
    • Epithelial keratitis

    Session-20:-Acanthamoeba keratitis

    Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare disease in which amoebae invade the cornea of the eye.It may result in permanent visual impairment or blindness.Acanthamoeba Keratitis(AK)is an infection of the cornea,the clear‘window’at the front of the eye,that can be very painful.The infection is caused by a microscopic organism called Acanthamoeba,which is common in nature and is usually found in bodies of water (lakes, oceans and rivers) as well as domestic tap water, swimming pools,hot tubs,soil and air. 

    Many different species of Acanthamoeba exist.Acanthamoeba organisms do not generally cause harm to humans(we come into contact with them when we wash,swim,drink water etc)but they can cause a serious eye disease if they infect the cornea.Not all species of Acanthamoeba have been found to cause corneal infections.AK is most common in people who wear contact lenses, but anyone with a corneal injury is susceptible to developing the infection.

     Generally speaking,Acanthamoeba has a life cycle of two stages:an active form (when the organism feeds and replicates), and a dormant form (when the Acanthamoeba protects itself from attack by developing.

    • AK
    • Confocal microscopy
    • Corneal scraping
    • Targeted PCR amplification
    • Ocular erythema
    • Recurrent corneal erosion
    • Amebic ocular keratitis
    • Epiphora
    • Photophobia


    Astigmatism is a type of refractive error in which the eye does not focus light evenly on the retina.This results in distorted or blurred vision at all distances.Other symptoms can include eyestrain,headaches, and trouble driving at night.If it occurs early in life it can result in amblyopia.

    The cause of astigmatism is unclear.It is believed to be partly related to genetic factors.The underlying mechanism involves an irregular curvature of the cornea or abnormalities in the lens of the eye.Diagnosis is by an eye exam.

    Three options exist for the treatment:glasses, contact lenses,andsurgery.Glasses are the simplest.Contact lenses can provide a wider field of vision.Refractive surgery permanently changes the shape of the eye.

    • Eye exam
    • Refractive surgery
    • Contact lenses
    • Blurry vision
    • Squinting
    • Eye strain
    • Fatigue
    • Migraine
    • Amblyopia
    • Corneal topography


    Vitrectomy is surgery to remove some or all of the vitreous humor from the eye.Anterior vitrectomy entails removing small portions of the vitreous humor from the front structures of the eye-often because these are tangled in an intraocular lens or other structures.Pars plana vitrectomy is a general term for a group of operations accomplished in the deeper part of the eye,all of which involve removing some or all of the vitreous humor-the eye's clear internal jelly.Even before the modern era,some surgeons did perform crude vitrectomies.  For instance,Dutch surgeon Anton Nuck (1650-1692) claimed to have removed vitreous by suction in a young man with an inflamed eye.In Boston,John Collins Warren (1778-1856) performed a crude limited vitrectomy for angle closure glaucoma.

    • Pars plana vitrectomy
    • Anterior vitrectomy
    • Macular pucker
    •  Terson syndrome
    • Lensectomy
    • Scleral buckling
    • Silicone oil injection
    • Membranectomy
    • Fluid/air exchange
    • Air/gas exchange 

    Session-23:-Cystoid macular

    Cystoid macular edema or CME,is a painless disorder which affects the central retina or macula.When this condition is present,multiple cyst-like (cystoid) areas of fluid appear in the macula and cause retinal swelling or edema.Symptoms

    Blurred or decreased central vision(the disorder does not affect peripheral or side-vision)The symptom described above may not necessarily mean that you have cystoid macular edema.However,if you experience this symptom,contact your eye doctor for a complete exam.Although the exact cause of CME is not known,it may accompany a variety of diseases such as retinal vein occlusion, uveitis,or diabetes.It most commonly occurs after cataract surgery.About 1-3 % of those who have cataract extractions will experience decreased vision due to CME,usually within a few weeks after surgery.If the disorder appears in one eye,there is an increased risk (possibly as high as 50%) that it will also affect the second eye.Fortunately,however,most patients recover their vision with observation or treatment.

    • Retinal swelling
    • Decreased central vision
    • Retinal vein occlusion
    • Cataract surgery
    • Vitreomacular traction
    • Irvine-Gass
    • Glaucoma procedures
    • Optical Coherence Tomography 
    • Scanning laser ophthalmoscope
    • Retinal Thickness Analyzer 

    Session-24:-Diabetic Macular Edema

    Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) is an accumulation of fluid in the macula-part of the retina that controls our most detailed vision abilities-due to leaking blood vessels.In order to develop DME,you must first have diabetic retinopathy.Diabetic retinopathy is a disease that damages the blood vessels in the retina,resulting in vision impairment.Left untreated, these blood vessels begin to build up pressure in the eye and leak fluid,causing DME.DME usually takes on two forms:

    Focal DME,which occurs because of abnormalities in the blood vessels in the eye.

    Diffuse DME,which occurs because of widening/swelling retinal capillaries (very thin blood vessels).

    Diabetic Retinopathy and DME are common problems for diabetics.Roughly 8% of the U.S. population is diabetic,and about 28% of those diabetics have eye trouble because of it. Often, DME is associated with:those who have had diabetes for an extended amount of time,severe hypertension (high blood pressure),fluid retention,hypoalbuminemia (low levels of protein in body fluids),and hyperlipidemia (high levels of fats in the blood).

    DME Symptoms:Common symptoms of DME are blurry vision, floaters, double vision, and eventually blindness if it goes untreated.

    • Focal DME
    • Diffuse DME
    • AMD
    • Behçet’s syndrome
    • Cytomegalovirus infection
    • Sarcoidosis
    • Retinal necrosis
    • Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome
    • Eales’ disease
    • Dilated eye exam


    Pathologic droopy eyelid, also called ptosis,may occur due to trauma,age,or various medical disorders.This condition is called unilateral ptosis when it affects one eye.It’s called bilateral ptosis when it affects both eyes.It may come and go,or it might be permanent.It can be present at birth,where it’s known as congenital ptosis,or you can develop it later in life, which is known as acquired ptosis.

    Depending on the severity of the condition,droopy upper eyelids can block or greatly reduce vision depending on how much it obstructs the pupil.In most cases,the condition will resolve,either naturally or through medical intervention.There are many different possible causes of droopy eyelids,ranging from natural causes to more serious conditions.Your doctor will be able to help you figure out what’s causing the issue.

    Anyone can get droopy eyelids,and there aren’t substantial differences in prevalence between men and women or between ethnicities.However,it’s most common in older adults because of the natural aging process.The levator muscle is responsible for lifting the eyelid.As you age,that muscle can stretch and,as a result,cause the eyelid to fall.Keep in mind,though,that people of all ages can be affected by this condition.Though rare,babies are sometimes born with it.

    Sometimes the exact cause is unknown,but other times it may be due to trauma.It can also be neurological.

    • Unilateral ptosis
    • Bilateral ptosis
    • Congenital ptosis
    • Acquired ptosis
    • Blepharoptosis
    • Myasthenia Gravis
    • Abnormal lid crease
    • Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS)
    • Aarskog Syndrome
    • Turner Syndrome 
    • Aase Syndrome

     Session-26:-Retrochiasmetic visual pathways

    Visual failure of any kind is a common clinical presentation and indication for neuroimaging.Monocular deficits should concentrate the search to the anterior (prechiasmatic) visual pathway.Bitemporal hemianopia suggests a chiasmatic cause, whereas retrochiasmatic lesions characteristically cause homonymous hemianopic defects.Quadrantanopias usually arise from lesions in the optic radiations.Disorders of visual perception can be broadly divided into"where"and"what" problems caused by lesions in the parietal and temporal lobes, respectively,and their associated white matter tracts. Visualization of the retrochiasmatic visual and visual association pathways is aided by diffusion tensor imaging.

    The Electroretinogram (ERG)

    Test length 

    This test is approximately 90 minutes (including pupil dilation).

    Test definition

    The electroretinogram (ERG) is a widely use visual electrophysiological test of retinal function. It measures the electrical activity of the retinal cells in response to flashes of light.

    Test procedure

    The ERG is recorded with 2 corneal, non-contact, electrodes (DTL fiber electrodes) placed in the conjunctival sac of each eye, and 3 gold cup electrodes taped onto the forehead and onto the right and left temples. Flashes of lights from a stimulator (ganzfeld) are presented to the patient with the room lights on and off.

    The Multifocal Electroretinogram (mfERG)

    Test length

    This test is approximately 60 minutes (including pupil dilation).

    Test definition

    The multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) is a visual electrophysiological test of macular function. It measures the electrical activity of the macular retinal cells.

    Test procedure

    The mfERG is recorded with 2 corneal, non-contact, electrodes (DTL fiber electrodes) placed in the conjunctival sac of each eye, and 3 gold cup electrodes taped onto the forehead and onto the right and left temples. An array of hexagonal elements is presented on a computer screen to the patients with the room lights on.

    The Visual Evoked Potentals (VEP): Flash (FVEP) and Pattern (PVEP)

    Test length

    This test is approximately 60 minutes.

    Test definition

    The visual evoked potential (VEP) provides important diagnostic information regarding the functional integrity of the visual system. It measures the electrical activity of the brain that is produce in response to an external visual stimulus. The most widely used stimuli are flashes of light (FVEP) or checkerboards (PVEP).

    Test procedure

    The VEP is recorded with 3 gold cup electrodes placed on the back of the head (held in place with a bandana) and 2 gold cup electrodes taped onto the forehead and onto the left temple. Typically, the VEPs are recorded with both eyes open and with a patch placed over each eye to test the eyes separately. Flashes of lights from a stimulator (FVEP) and checkerboards from a computer screen (PVEP) are presented to the patient with the room lights on.

    The Electro-Oculogram (EOG)

    Test length

    This test is approximately 90 minutes (including pupil dilation).

    Test definition

    The electro-oculogram (EOG) is a visual electrophysiological test which reflects the integrity of the retinal pigment epithelium. It measures the outer retinal cells and retinal pigment epithelium cells function.

    Test procedure

    The EOG is recorded with 4 small gold cup electrodes taped on each side of the nose and on each side of the temple. The patient looks into a white globe stimulator (ganzfeld) and follows two alternating red lights for 15 seconds every minute for a total of approximately 45 minutes. Part of the test requires that all the lights in the room are turned off.

    Farnsworth Dichotomous Test (Panel D-15)

    Test length

    This test is approximately 15 minutes.

    Test definition

    The Farnsworth Dichotomous Test (Panel D-15) measures color vision.

    Test procedure

    To open the ABS clear plastic box, press the circular label in the center of the top and lift up one end. Keeping the top and bottom together (but still open) tip the color discs into the top so they are upside down. Now tip the top (with the discs) onto the surface selected for the test. It is recommended that the surface be black in color. The examiner then selects the reference cap (the color disc with blank notation underside) and places that cap into the box bottom, to one end. Wearing gloves, the patient is then instructed to select the color disc, which most closely matches the reference cap and place in the bottom of the box and slide next to the reference cap.

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